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Turbocharger Identification
Before ordering a replacement turbocharger it is important to identify the turbochargers part number. Many applications have several different turbocharger variations even when narrowed down to the year and engine type. Therefore the turbocharger part number should be acquired whenever possible.

Each turbocharger should have an identification plate attached to it detailing the part number and the model number. This plate is in various postitions depending on the type of turbocharger


Turbocharger I.D. Tags

Garrett Turbochargers are formatted as follows:

7#####-00## or 4#####-00##

Garrett turbo part numbers are found on a small aluminium plate or etched onto a flat surface on the aluminium intake housing.

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KKK Turbochargers are formatted as follows: K14 to K32 are written in full as example below:

5316-970-6723

K03 and K04 turbochargers are abbreviated on the turbocharger tag as follows:

K03-3 or K03-03 = part number 5303-970-0003

KKK turbo part numbers are placed on an auminium plate on the front or rear of the aluminium intake housing.

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Holset Turbochargers are formatted:

35#####

Holset Part numbers are place on an aluminium tag close to the air outlet of the compressor housing.

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Mitsubishi or MHI Turbochargers are formatted:

4####-0####

Mistsbishi turbochargers have the part number made up of a combination of cast and stamped numbers on the aluminium intake housing. Some mitsubishi turbochargers such as those fitted to Saab and Volvo may have an aluminium plate riveted onto the air intake housing instead.

Turbocharger Fitting
Correct turbocharger fitment involves more than following the turbocharger fitting instructions that are specific and supplied with each turbocharger. When a turbocharger has failed the fault diagnosis does not stop there. Far more important is the reason for failure. Most turbochargers fail for a reason; the most popular cause of failure are oil related problems.

Other causes such as overboosting, overspeeding and foreign object impact damage are all common turbocharger failure causes. Any fault that will prejudice the operation of the turbocharger must be found and rectified before fitment of another turbocharged is carried out.

The chart below provides only a guideline to various causes of incorrect turbocharger operation. As the chart illustrates, many faults are outside the operation of the turbocharger, which is not always the cause of the fault.

A turbocharger is not an independent device unlike other ancillary components on a vehicle, such as a power steering pump for example. It is an intrinsic part of the vehicle's power system. It shares with the engine it's oil supply, water supply, air intake supply, exhaust gas flow, engine management control, various pneumatic devices, ignition and fuel injection devices. Any and all of these have a crucial effect on the operation of the turbocharger. The culmination of these variables can result in a relatively complicated task in accurate turbocharger fault diagnosis. It is for this reason that sufficient time and understanding must be applied to turbocharger fault investigations.

Turbocharger Check-List
Replace oil supply lines and fittings. These lines often become plugged with decomposed oil which restricts oil flow and drainage.
Do not used silicone or thread tape
Make sure all openings to turbo are open and not plug or capped off.
Shut off fuel or disable ignition and crank the engine for at least 15 seconds or until oil pressure is raised
Allow engine to fast idle (1,000 RPM) for 3 - 5 minutes to seat turbo seals
Always let engine idle for 3 -5 minutes before shut down, otherwise the turbo will continue to spin without oil lubrication and pressure
When changing oil, be sure to prime oil filter

Fault Diagnosis


Symptom : Engine Lacks Power

Cause

Remedy

Worn internal engine components

Repair engine as required

Fuel system defective or incorrectly adjusted

Replace or adjust faulty components

Low boost

Check wastegate and actuator operation

Damaged turbocharger

Determine reason for failure - repair or replace turbo

Air filter blocked

Replace air filter

Air pipe into turbo restricted

Replace pipe

Air pipe from filter to turbo leaking

Check hoses for splits and tighten hose clips

Air pipe from turbo to inlet manifold leaking

Check hoses and intercooler for leaks and replace

Ignition timing incorrectly adjusted

Check and reset

Blockage in exhaust system

Replace silencers or catalytic converter

Exhaust gas leaking from manifold

Replace gasket or manifold - check bolts for tightness

 


Symptom : Turbo Noisy

Cause

Remedy

Damaged turbocharger

Determine reason for failure - repair or replace turbo

Air pipe into turbo restricted

Replace pipe

Air pipe from filter to turbo leaking

Check hoses for splits and tighten hose clips

Air pipe from turbo to inlet manifold leaking

Check hoses and intercooler for leaks and replace

Carbon build-up in turbo bearing housing

Change engine oil and filter-overhaul or replace turbo

Blockage in exhaust system

Replace silencers or catalytic converter

Exhaust gas leaking from manifold

Replace gasket or manifold - check bolts for tightnes

Symptom : Excessive Engine Oil Consumption

Cause

Remedy

Worn internal engine components

Repair engine as required

Fuel system defective or incorrectly adjusted

Replace or adjust faulty components

Damaged turbocharger

Determine reason for failure - repair or replace turbo

Air filter blocked

Replace air filter

Air pipe into turbo restricted

Replace pipe

Incorrect operation of crankcase breather system

Check breather hoses, pipes and one way valves as per manufacturers recommendations

Carbon build-up in turbo bearing housing

Change engine oil and filter-overhaul or replace turbo

Air pipe from turbo to inlet manifold leaking

Check hoses and intercooler for leaks and replace

Restricted oil drain pipe from turbocharger

Replace oil drain pipe


Symptom : Blue Exhaust Smoke

Cause

Remedy

Worn internal engine components

Repair engine as required

Fuel system defective or incorrectly adjusted

Replace or adjust faulty components

Damaged turbocharger

Determine reason for failure - repair or replace turbo

Air filter blocked

Replace air filter

Air pipe into turbo restricted

Replace pipe

Restricted oil drain pipe from turbocharger

Replace oil drain pipe

Incorrect operation of crankcase breather system

Check breather hoses, pipes and one way valves as per manufacturers recommendations

Carbon build-up in turbo bearing housing

Change engine oil and filter-overhaul or replace turbo